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癌症是可以预防的慢性病

  说到癌症,人们大多谈之色变。4月15日至21日是第25个“全国肿瘤防治宣传周”,今年的主题是“科学抗癌 预防先行”。在全国宣传周来临之际,市疾控中心发布了有关癌症防治的核心信息,希望对市民科学防癌抗癌有所裨益。

  癌症是一类严重危害群众健康的慢性病

  市疾控中心专家介绍,癌症是一大类疾病的总称,我国每年新发癌症病例超过350万,死亡病例超过200万,防控形势严峻。我国最常见的癌症包括肺癌、乳腺癌、胃癌、肝癌、结直肠癌、食管癌、子宫颈癌、甲状腺癌等。近年来, 肺癌、乳腺癌及结直肠癌等发病呈显着上升趋势,肝癌、胃癌及食管癌等发病率仍居高不下。

  致癌因素十分复杂,包括化学、物理和慢性感染等外部因素以及遗传、免疫、年龄、生活方式等自身因素。大部分癌症是人体细胞在外界因素长期作用下,基因损伤和改变长期积累的结果,是一个多因素、多阶段、 复杂渐进的过程,从正常细胞发展到癌细胞通常需要十几年到几十年的时间。

  改变不健康生活方式可以预防癌症发生

  世卫组织认为癌症是一种生活方式疾病。三分之一的癌症完全可以预防;三分之一的癌症可以通过早期发现得到根治;三分之一的癌症可以运用现有的医疗措施延长生命、减轻痛苦、改善生活质量。

  吸烟、肥胖、缺少运动、?#32531;?#29702;膳食习惯、酗酒、压力、心理紧张等都是癌症发生的危险因素。戒烟限酒、平衡膳食、适量运动、心情舒畅可以?#34892;?#38477;低癌症的发生。癌症的发生是人全生命周期相关危险因素累积的过程。癌症防控不只是中老年人的事情,要尽早关注癌症预防,?#26377;?#20859;?#23665;?#24247;的生活方式,避免接触烟草、酒精等致癌因素,降低癌症的发生风险。

  癌症是由于自身细胞基因发生变化而产生的,是不传染的。但一些与癌症发生密切相关的细菌(如幽门螺杆菌)、病?#33606;?#22914;人乳头状病?#23613;?#32925;炎病?#23613;B病毒等)是会传染的。所以,通过保持个人卫生和健康生活方?#20581;?#25509;种疫苗(如肝炎病毒疫苗、人乳头状病毒疫苗)是可以避免感染相关的细菌和病?#33606;?#20174;而预防癌症的发生。

  关注身体出现的癌症危险信号

  市疾控中心提醒市民,规范的防癌体检可以早期发现癌症,其目的是让群众知晓自身患癌风险,发现早期癌症或癌前病变,进?#24615;?#26399;干预。目前的?#38469;?#25163;段可以早期发现大部分的常见癌症。使用胸部低剂量螺旋CT可以检查肺癌,超声结合钼靶可以检查乳腺癌,胃肠镜可以检查消化道癌等。防癌体检专业性强,讲究个体化和?#34892;?#24615;,应选择专业的体检机构进行。要根据个体年龄、既往检查结果等选择合适的体检间隔时间。

  癌症的治疗效果和生存时间与癌症发现的早晚密切相关,发现越早,治疗效果越好,生存时间越长。市民要随时关注自己身体出现的癌症危险信号,出现以下症状应及时到医院进行诊治:1.身体浅表部位出现的异常肿块;2.体表黑痣和疣等在短期内色泽加深或?#26438;?#22686;大;3.身体出现的异常感觉:哽咽?#23567;?#30140;痛等;4.皮肤或粘膜经久不愈的溃疡;5.?#20013;?#24615;消化不良和食欲减退;6.大便习惯及性状改变或带血;7.持久性声音嘶哑,干咳,痰中带血;8.听力异常,鼻血,头痛;9.阴道异常出血,特别是接触性出血;10.无痛性血尿,排尿不畅;11.不明原因的发热、乏力、进行性体重减轻。

  目前癌症的治疗方法包括手术治疗?#22836;?#25163;术治疗两大类,非手术治疗包括放射治疗、化学治疗、靶向治疗、免疫治疗、内?#32622;?#27835;疗、中医治疗等。规范化治疗是长期临床治疗工作的科学总结,根据癌症种类和疾病分期来决定综合治疗方案,是治愈癌症的基本保障。癌症患者要到正规医院进行规范化治疗,不要轻信偏方或虚假广告,以免贻误治疗时机。

  癌症的康复治疗可以?#34892;?#25552;高患者的生存时间和生活质量。癌症患者的康复要做到乐观的心态、平衡的膳食、适当的锻炼、合理的用药、定期的复查。患者要正视癌症,积极调整身体免疫力,保?#33267;?#22909;身心状态,达到病情长期稳定,与癌症“和平共处”。

  市疾控中心特别提醒患者:疼痛是癌症患者最常见、最主要的症状。患者要在医生帮助下通过科学的止痛方法积极处理疼痛,不要忍受痛苦。(记者 周剑南 通?#23545;?李静)

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